StarCom: 125 Pythons

This is my first post about a project I’ve been working on for a good while now. Unfortunately I’ve never been sure what the project was destined to be. Initially it was a simple 3D star map for use in space based games on a campaign scale, to replace one I wrote a few years ago which seemed fairly popular called 3D StarMap. But things have developed and I’m considering a full blown multiplayer online Elite clone. I might settle for something inbetween, but I’m not working to a deadline so I’ll see where it takes me. This screenshot was just to test frame rates with varying numbers of polygons, here showing a 5x5x5 cube of Python-style ships from the old Elite game. There are only about 1625 polygons for the ships, although the starfield background is mapped onto a large sphere, so that’s a few extra polys. I think I managed to get upto just over 145,000 polygons before the frame rate changed from 71 fps (frames per second) which isn’t bad.

Checking the frame rate when displaying 125 copies of the old Elite game Python ship. Each model has just 8 triangle and 5 quad polygons, so that's 1625 polygons at 71 fps.
Checking the frame rate when displaying 125 copies of the old Elite game Python ship. Each model has just 8 triangle and 5 quad polygons, so that’s 1625 polygons at 71 fps.

So far I’ve been trudging through Blender to create the models, primarily because I want to keep to free software in developing this project. I use DevCpp from Bloodshed Software for development, using C++ of course, Blender as I mentioned for the 3D modelling and soon I’ll switch to GIMP for the textures and other graphics. To begin with exporting raw ASCII models from Blender was sufficient, until I wanted to include the textures which aren’t supported in the raw format. So I switched to the AC3D ASCII format which does provide support for textures and I’d much rather Blender calculated the texture coordinates that do it manually myself.

I need to find some better way of creating the background starfield, the image used is quite big as it is, but it still gets blown-up and causes the stars to look fuzzy and dull. I’m going to have to work on some functions to load .PNG format textures as the compression on these is pretty awesome, which is extremely useful as these textures could end up being rather large. I’ve had some problems with compiling a working .PNG library (libpng and glpng) for windows anyway, probably a cinch on Linux. I’ve managed to create the zlib but it seems to have problems after that which I won’t go into now.

Of course the whole thing is written using the OpenGL graphics library.

Internet Evolution: Introducing XML

When I started writing web pages back in ’95, HTML seemed enough, but as time passed and languages and standards evolved the results made a whole lot more sense. In the beginning SGML (Standard Generalised Markup Language) was the root language so to speak. This was used to define the HTML (HyperText Markup Language) language, amongst others.

Over the years HTML has been misused in many ways, although achieving the designers desired results, this has been at the expense of accessibility. I’m not just referring to accessibility for those with disability, but also those using different platforms and technologies. Consider the differences between Internet Explorer and Netscape Navigator, numerous headaches have been inflicted by their separate approaches. On the side of disability the over use of tables to provide page layout has alienated those who rely on screen-readers and similar tools. Luckily things are beginning to change and many other benefits have been introduced.

The first improvement I came across was the introduction of CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) and layers using the DIV and SPAN tags. The point of CSS was to enable and encourage, designers to separate a web pages layout from its content. Some of the benefits of this include re-useability of layouts and styles over whole websites requiring a theme throughout and by removing the style information from HTML documents, increasing the readability of the HTML source. The DIV and SPAN tags enabled us to create layouts which had previously required the use of tables, since these tags work very closely with CSS as opposed to HTML, this removes the clutter of tables from HTML documents. Although this is not without a price, since the construction of tabled layouts are more straightforward, whereas the CSS path is a rocky road with many pitfalls. But hey, wheres the fun in a smooth ride?

XML (eXtensible Markup Language) has since taken us to the next level by removing the content of web pages from the HTML document. At this point you might be wondering, “what could be remaining in the HTML document after removing both layout and content?”. The answer to which is the “document structure”. With the three elements of a document separated we achieve greater control and functionality, since we can update the appearance of a site without dealing with the content or structure, we can change the content without wading through structure and appearance and so on. XML, like HTML, is tag based and derived from SGML. But unlike HTML, XML is self-descriptive in that there are no predefined tags (except for the single xml tag found at the top of all xml files), you must define your own.

XML, as I’ve mentioned before, is designed for describing data (such as web page content, for example) and because of its self-descriptive nature you are left to freely define your data however you wish. Consider this example XML for describing a music collection:

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<collection>
  <item>
    <artist>Eagles</artist>
    <title>One Of These Nights</title>
    <format type="LP">Vinyl</format>
  </item>
  <item>
    <artist>Metallica</artist>
    <title>Master Of Puppets</title>
    <format type="Album">CD</format>
  </item>
</collection>

The only pre-defined tag in the above code is the required xml tag, the rest have no meaning except to the person who wrote the code and maybe others if the code is self explanatory such as in this example. So, if the tags have no real meaning to something like a web browser then how can they be of any use you might wonder? Well, XML on it’s own does nothing except define your data, you have to use some other means to actually use it. For example a compiled program could read, interpret and use the data, or it can be directly displayed in a web browser using XSL (eXtensible Stylesheet Language). This language consists of several sub parts, each of which plays an important role in the use of XML stored data:

  • XSLT (XSL-Transform) – Transforms XML documents into other XML, HTML or other formatted documents.
  • XPath – Defines sections of an XML document.
  • XSL-FO (XSL-Formatting Objects) – Formats XML documents.
  • XQuery – Built on XPath expressions, this language is used to query XML data, much like SQL queries database data.

This evolution from a single language providing static documents (without scripting), often providing inaccessible information with messy source code to isolation of document structure, content and style with dynamic potential is clearly a jump away from the darkside.

May the markup be with you…